The Sulu Sultanate formed a small portion of the north-eastern corner of the island of Borneo, along with other small islands surrounding the Sea of Sulu.

In recent years, the heirs of the former Sultan of Sulu have been pursuing an ad hoc arbitration against Malaysia for non-payment of rents allegedly due under a 150-year-old agreement. Malaysia did not participate in the arbitration, and most recently, the arbitrator issued a 14-plus billion-dollar award against Malaysia. This article describes the history of the dispute, both factually and procedurally, and assess whether the massive award is enforceable in the U.S. pursuant to the New York Convention.

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